THE TOBACCO TIMELINE
The Nineteenth Century--The Age of the Cigar
1800s: FRANCE: "Lorettes" -- prostitutes near the Notre Dame de Lorettes church--are the first women to smoke publicly.
1800: CANADA: Tobacco begins being commercially grown in Southern Ontario.
1804-06: LEWIS AND CLARK explore Northwest, using gifts of tobacco as "life insurance."
1805-7: CERIOLI isolates nicotine, the "essential oil" or "essence of tobacco"
1805-12-25: LEWIS AND CLARK: First Christmas in the Northwest. The Lewis & Clark party, having built a winter encampment at Fort Clatsop (OR), celebrates Christmas. Clark writes: "at day light this morning we we[re] awoke by the discharge of the fire arm of all our party & a Selute, Shoute and a Song which the whole party joined in under our windows, after which they retired to their rooms were Chearfull all the morning-- after brackfast we divided our Tobacco which amounted to 12 carrots one half of which we gave to the men of the party who used tobacco, and to those who doe not use it we make a present of a handkerchief."
1806-03-07: LEWIS AND CLARK. Patrick Gass, holed up with the expedition in Fort Clatsup, OR, writes, "Among our other difficulties, we now experience the want of tobacco. We use crabtree bark as a substitute."
1809: SCIENCE: FRANCE: Louis Nicolas Vanquelin isolates nicotine from tobacco smoke.
1810: CONNECTICUT: Cuban cigar-roller brought to Suffield to train local workers. (ATS)
1811: POETRY: A Farewell to Tobacco Charels Lamb
1818: REGULATION: PA: Smoking is banned on the streets of Lancaster. The first man to break the law and pay the 20 shilling fine is Mayor John Passmore.
1817: BUSINESS: SPAIN deregulates the growing, processing and selling of tobacco.
1820: American traders open the Santa Fe trail, find ladies of that city smoking "seegaritos." (ATS)
1822: Hermbstdt isolates nicotine and calls the causa efficiens of nicotianas Nicotianin."
1823: C. Clement Moore's 1823 poem "A Visit From St. Nicholas'' describes Santa Claus as pipe-smoker.
1826: ENGLAND is importing 26 pounds of cigars a year. The cigar becomes so popular that within four years, England will be importing 250,000 pounds of cigars a year.
1827: ENGLAND: First friction match invented. Chemist John Walker uses phosphorus (discovered in 1666) atop a wooden stick, calls his invention "Congreves," after the rocket maker. Later they became known as "lucifers", then "matches." See the history here: http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blmatch.htm
1828: SPAIN:The cigarette becomes popular as a new way of smoking.They are sold individually, and in "rolls."
1828: GERMANY: Heidelberg students Ludwig Reimann and Wilhelm Heinrich Posselt are credited with first isolating nicotine in a pure form; the active ingredient being the alkaloid C10H14N2. They write exhaustive dissertations on the pharmacology of nicotine, concluding it is a "dangerous poison."
1830s: TOBACCO CONTROL: First organized anti-tobacco movement in US begins as adjunct to the temperance movement. Tobacco use is considered to dry out the mouth, "creating a morbid or diseased thirst" which only liquor could quench..
1830: PRUSSIA: Prussian Government enacts a law that cigars , in public, be smoked in a sort of wire-mesh contraption designed to prevent sparks setting fire to ladies' "crinolines" and hoop skirts. (BD)
1832: TURKEY: Invention of the paper-rolled cigarette? While Southwest Indians, Aztecs and Mayans had used hollow reeds, cane or maize to fashion cylindrical tobacco-holders, and Sevillians had rolled cigar-scraps in thrown-away paper (papeletes), an Egyptian artilleryman [in the Turk/Egyptian war] is credited with the invention of the cigarette as we know it. In the siege of Acre, the Egyptian's cannon crew had improved their rate of fire by rolling the gunpowder in paper tubes. For this, he and his crew were rewarded with a pound of tobacco. Their sole pipe was broken, however, so they took to rolling the pipe tobacco in the paper. The invention spread among both Egyptian and Turkish soldiers. And thus . . . (Good-Bye to All That, 1970)
1832: AGRICULTURE: TUCK patents curing method for Virginia leaf.
1832: BOOKS: Domestinc Manners of the Americans by Frances Trollope
1833-02-27 RELIGION: In Kirtland, OH, Mormon founder Joseph Smith announces to church leaders that God opposes strong drinks, hot drinks and tobacco. This proclamation becomes known as the "Word of Wisdom," but considered as counsel or advice, rather than a commandment.
1832: BOOKS: American Notes by Charles Dickens
1836: USA: Samuel Green of the New England Almanack and Farmers Friend writes that tobacco is an insectide, a poison, a fillthy habit, and can kill a man. (LB)
1839: AGRICULTURE: NORTH CAROLINA: SLADE "yallercure" presages flue-cured Bright tobacco. Charcoal used in flue-curing for the first time in North Carolina. Not only cheaper, its intense heat turns the thinner, low-nicotine Piedmont leaf a brilliant golden color. This results in the classic American "Bright leaf" variety, which is so mild it virtually invites a smoker to inhale it.(RK), (ATS) (Legend has it that one night, an 18-year-old slave named Peter was assigned to keep watch over a barn of tobacco on the Slade Farm, tending the fire, feeding it just enough wood to push a steady, smoky heat through the barn. He fell asleep, and only woke up after a rainstorm had cooled the barn--and drenched his wood. Desperate, he got some charcoal from the blacksmith shop and used it to superheat the barn. This process accidentally turned the tobacco golden, and imbued it with a mild, buttery taste. Thus was the bright-leaf tobacco industry was born.)
1840: BUSINESS: Miflin Marsh begins Marsh Wheeling Cigars in his Wheeling, WV, home.
1840: Boston, MA, bans smoking as fire hazard.
1840: FRANCE: Frederic Chopin’s mistress, the Baroness de Dudevant, is the first woman to smoke in public.
1842: CHINA: OPIUM WAR. Treaty of Nanjing forces China to accept opium from British traders
1843: FRANCE: SEITA monopoly begins manufacture of cigarettes.
1843: MEDICINE: The correct molecular formula of nicotine is established
1845: JOHN QUINCY ADAMS writes to the Rev. Samuel H. Cox: "In my early youth I was addicted to the use of tobacco in two of its mysteries, smoking and chewing. I was warned by a medical friend of the pernicious operation of this habit upon the stomach and the nerves.''
1845: BOOKS: Prosper Merimee's novel, Carmen, about a cigarette girl in an Andalusian factory, is published
1846-1848: MEXICAN WAR US soldiers bring back from the Southwest a taste for the darker, richer tobacco favored in Latin countries--cigarros and cigareillos--leading to an explosive increase in the use of the cigar. (The South remains firmly attached to chewing tobacco.)
1847: ENGLAND: Philip Morris opens shop; sells hand-rolled Turkish cigarettes.
1848: GERMANY: REGULATION: Abolition of the last restrictions in Berlin (AHS)
1848: ITALY: "Tobacco War" erupts as Italians stop smoking to protest AUSTRIAN control of the tobacco monopoly. When Austrian soldiers smoke cigars on the street, deadly riots break out.
1849: BUSINESS: J.E. Liggett and Brother is established in St. Louis, Mo., by John Edmund Liggett
1849: CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH: One commentator writes of this period: "I have seen purer liquors, better seegars, finer tobacco, truer guns and pistols, larger dirks and bowie knives, and prettier cortezans, here in San Francisco than in any place I have ever visited, and it is my unbiased opinion that California can and does furnish the best bad things that are obtainable in America."
1852:Washington Duke, a young tobacco farmer, builds a modest, two-story home near Durham, NC, for himself and his new bride. The house, and the log structure which served as a "tobacco factory" after the Civil War may still be seen at the Duke Homestead Museum.
1852: Matches are introduced, making smoking more convenient.
1853-1856: EUROPE: CRIMEAN WAR British soldiers learn how cheap and convenient the cigarettes ("Papirossi") used by their Turkish allies are, and bring the practise back to England. The story goes that the English captured a Russian train loaded with provisions--including cigarettes...
1854: ENGLAND: BUSINESS: London tobacconist Philip Morris begins making his own cigarettes. Old Bond Street soon becomes the center of the retail tobacco trade.
1854: FRIEDRICH TIEDEMANN writes the first exhaustive treatment on tobacco.
1854: First North American patent for a fire-safe (self-extinguishing) cigarette is registered. (Bristol 11.409)
1855: J.E. Lundstrom invents the safety match, which requires a special striking surface.
1855: "Annual Report of the New York Anti-Tobacco Society for 1855" calls tobacco a "fashionable poison," warns against addiction and claims half of all deaths of smokers between 35 and 50 were caused by smoking.
1856-1857: ENGLAND: A running debate among readers about the health effects of tobacco runs in the British medical journal, Lancet. The argument runs as much along moral as medical lines, with little substantiation.(RK)
1856: BUSINESS: NORTHERN IRELAND: Tom Gallaher begins a business making Irish roll tobacco in Londonderry.
1856-1857: ENGLAND: The country's first cigarette factory is opened by Crimean vet Robert Gloag, manufacturing "Sweet Threes" (GTAT)
1856: PEOPLE: James Buchanan "Buck" Duke is born to Washington "Wash" Duke, an independent farmer who hated the plantation class, opposed slavery, and raised food and a little tobacco.
1857: BUSINESS: NORTHERN IRELAND: Gallaher is founded in Londonderry by Tom Gallaher. Later, he moved the firm to Belfast.
1858: Treaty of Tianjin allows cigarettes to be imported into China duty-free.
1858: First Chinese Immigrant arrives in New York City, Sells Cigars. Ah Ken moves into a house on Mott St., opens a cigar store on Park Row. ( Low Life, Sante, 1991)
1858: Fears are first raised about the health effects of smoking in The Lancet
1859: Reverend George Trask publishes tract "Thoughts and stories for American Lads: Uncle Toby's anti-tobacco advice to his nephew Billy Bruce". He writes, "Physicians tell us that twenty thousand or more in our own land are killed by [tobacco] every year (LB)
1860: The Census for Virginia and North Carolina list 348 tobacco factories, virtually all producing chewing tobacco. Only 6 list smoking tobacco as a side-product (which is manufactured from scraps left over from plug production).
1860: BUSINESS: Manufactured cigarettes appear. A popular early brand is Blackwell Tobacco Company's Bull Durham, which rose to become the most famous brand in world, and gave rise to the term "bull pen" for a baseball dugout.
1860: BUSINESS: MARKETING: Lorillard wraps $100 bills at random in packages of cigarette tobacco named "Century," in order to celebrate the hundredth anniversary of the firm (BD)
1861-1865: USA: THE CIVIL WAR: Tobacco is given with rations by both North and South; many Northerners are introduced to tobacco this way. During Sherman's march, Union soldiers, now attracted to the mild, sweet "bright" tobacco of the South, raided warehouses--including Washington Duke's--for some chew on the way home. Some bright made it all the way back. Bright tobacco becomes the rage in the North.
1862: THE CIVIL WAR: First federal USA tax on tobacco; instituted to help pay for the Civil War, yields about three million dollars.(TSW)
1863: SUMATRA: Nienhuys creates Indonesian tobacco industry. Dutch businessman Jacobus Nienhuys travels to Sumatra seeking to buy tobacco, but finds poor growing and production facilities; his efforts to rectify the situation are credited with establishing the indonesian tobacco industry.
1863: US Mandates Cigar Boxes. Congress passes a law calling for manufacturers to create cigar boxes on which IRS agents can paste Civil War excise tax stamps. The beginning of "cigar box art."
1864: CIVIL WAR: The first federal cigarette excise tax is imposed to help pay for the Civil War.
1864: AGRICULTURE: WHITE BURLEY first cultivated in Ohio Valley; highly absorbent, chlorophyll-deficient new leaf proves ideal for sweetened chewing tobacco.
1864: BUSINESS: 1st American cigarette factory opens and produces almost 20 million cigarettes.
1865-70: NEW YORK CITY: Demand for exotic Turkish cigarettes grows in New York City; skilled European rollers imported by New York tobacco shops. (ATS)
1868: UK: Parliament passes the Railway Bill of 1868, which mandates smoke-free cars to prevent injury to non-smokers.
1868/69?: BUSINESS: Allen & Gintner's Sweet Caporals brand is introduced.
1871: BUSINESS: R.A. Patterson founds the "Lucky Strike" company, named for the 1849 California Gold Rush.
1871: TAXES: The federal income tax, instituted in 1862, is repealed, replaced by liquor and tobacco taxes to finance the federal budget.
1873: BUSINESS: Philip Morris dies. (Yes, that Philip Morris) His wife, Margaret, and brother, Leopold, take over.
1873: Myers Brothers and Co. markets "Love" tobacco with theme of North-South Civil War reconcilliation.
1874: BUSINESS: Washington Duke, with his sons Benjamin N. Duke and James Buchanan Duke, builds his first tobacco factory
1874: BUSINESS: Samuel Gompers creates the first Union label; persuades a consortium of California cigar makers to apply a label that attest the cigar has been untouched by Chinese labor.
1875: BUSINESS: Allen and Ginter offer a reward of $75,000 for cigarette rolling machine. (LB)
1875: BUSINESS: R. J. Reynolds founds R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company to produce chewing tobacco, soon producing brands like Brown's Mule, Golden Rain, Dixie's Delight, Yellow Rose, Purity.
1875: BUSINESS: Richmond, VA: Allen & Ginter cigarette brands ("Richmond Straight Cut No. 1," "Pet") begin using picture cards to stiffen the pack and give the buyer a premium. Some themes: "Fifty Scenes of Perilous Occupations," "Flags of All Nations," boxers, actresses, famous battles, etc. The cards are a huge hit.(RK)
1875: ART: Georges Bizet's opera, Carmen, based on Merimee's novel about a cigarette girl in an Andalusian factory, opens.
1876: CENNTENNIAL CELEBRATION: PHILADELPHIA: Allen & Ginter's cigarette displays are so impressive that some writers thought the Philadelphia exposition marked the birth of the cigarette as well as the telephone. (CC)
1876: Benson & Hedges receives its first royal warrant from Edward VII, Prince of Wales.
1878: BUSINESS: J.E. Liggett & Brother incorporates as Liggett & Myers Company. By 1885 Liggett is world's largest plug tobacco manufacturer; doesn't make cigarettes until the 1890's
1878: BUSINESS: Trading cards and coupons begin being widely used in cigarette packs. Edward Bok suggested to a manufacturer that the blank "cardboard stiffeners" in the "cigarette sandwich', might have biographies on one side and pictures on the other. The American News Company-distributed Marquis of Lorne cigarettes were the first to have the new picture cards in each pack (GTAT)
1880: ENGLAND: BUSINESS: Leopold Morris buys Margaret's share of the Philip Morris business, and brings in a new partner.
1880s: USA: Women's Christian Temperance Movement publishes a "Leaflet for Mothers' Meetings" titled "Narcotics", by Lida B. Ingalls. Discusses evils of tobacco, especially cigarettes. Cigarettes are "doing more to-day to undermine the constitution of our young men and boys than any other one evil" (p. 7). (LB)
1880s: Cigarette cards, previously only used as stiffeners, begin displaying pictures.
1880s: ADVERTISING: Improvements in transportation, manufacturing volume, and packaging lead to the ability to sell the same branded product nationwide. What can be sold nationwide can and must be advertised nationwide. Advertising agencies sprout like wildflowers. The most advertised product throughout most of the 19th century: elixirs and patent medicines of the "cancer cure" variety.
1880s: ENGLAND: BUSINESS: Mssrs. Richard Benson and William Hedges open a tobacconist shop near Philip Morris in London.(RK)
1880s. BUSINESS: JB Duke's aggressive saleman Edward Featherston Small hires a cigarette saleswoman, Mrs. Leonard.
In .St. Louis, when retailers ignored him, Small advertised for a saleswoman. A petite, thin-lipped widow, a Mrs. Leonard, applied for the job and was accepted. This little stunt gave the Dukes thousands of dollars of free publicity in the local newspapers. (CC)
1880: BUSINESS: Bonsack machine granted first cigarette machine patent
1881: ENGLAND: BUSINESS: Philip Morris goes public.
1881: BUSINESS James Buchanan ("Buck") Duke enters the manufacturered cigarette business, moving 125 Russian Jewish immigrants to Durham, NC. First cigarette: Duke of Durham brand. Duke's factory produces 9.8 million cigarettes, 1.5 % of the total market.
1883: BUSINESS: Oscar Hammerstien receives patent on cigar rolling machine.(TSW)
1883: US ends the 1862 Civil War excise tax on cigars, helping to usher in a 40-year Golden Age of cigar smoking.
1884: BUSINESS: Duke heads to New York City to take his tobacco business national and form a cartel that eventually becomes the American Tobacco Co. Duke buys 2 Bonsack machines., getting one of them to produce 120,000 cigarettes in 10 hours by the end of the year. In this year Duke produces 744 million cigarettes, more than the national total in 1883. Duke's airtight contracts with Bonsack allow him to undersell all competitors.
1885: ENGLAND: BUSINESS: Leopold Morris joins with Joseph Grunebaum to establish Philip Morris & Company and Grunebaum, Ltd.
1886: BUSINESS: Patent received for machine to manufacture plug tobacco. (LB)
1886: BUSINESS: Tampa, FL: Don Vicente Martinez Ybor opens his first cigar factory. Others follow. Within a few years, Ybor city will become the cigar capital of the US.
1886: BUSINESS: JB Duke targets women with "Cameo" brand.
1887: ENGLAND: BUSINESS: Leopold Morris and Grunebaum dissolve their partnership. Company becomes Philip Morris & Co., Ltd.
1887: PALESTINE: A traveler reports that the Arabs of the Syrian Desert get giddy and headaches from a few whiffs of tobacco. They smoke a local plant 'Hyoscyamus'. (LB)
1887: USA: Advice from the cigar and tobacco price list of M. Breitweiser and Brothers of Buffalo, Item #5 -- "If you think smoking injurious to your health, stop smoking in the morning". (LB)
1887: USA: Two men held pipe smoking contest that lasted one and a half hours. Victory was declared when one man filled his pipe for the tenth time, his oppenent did not. (LB)
1887: BUSINESS: His contracts with Bonsack unknown to his competitors, Buck Duke slashes prices, sparking a price war he knew he'd win.
1887: BUSINESS: Connorton's Tobacco Brand Directory of the United States lists St. Louis as No. 1 in tobacco output.
1889: SCIENCE: Nicotine and nerve cells reported on. Langley and Dickinson publish landmark studies on the effects of nicotine on the ganglia; they hypothesize that there are receptors and transmitters that respond to stimulation by specific chemicals. (RK)
1889: USA: ADVERTISING: Buck Duke spends an unheard-of $800,000 in billboard and newspaper advertising.
1889-04-23: BUSINESS: The five leading cigarette firms, including W. Duke Sons & Company, unite. James Buchanan "Buck" Duke emerges as the president of the new American Tobacco Company.
1889: Lung cancer is an extremely rare disease: there are only 140 documented cases worldwide ( Kaminsky M. Ein primres Lungencarcinom mit verhornten Plattenepithelien. Greifswald: Inaug. Diss, 1898.)
c.1890s: USA: Women's Christian Temperance Movement publishes "Narcotics", by E. B. Ingalls. Pamphlet discusses evils of numerous drugs, tobacco, cocaine, ginger, hashish, and headache medicines. Offers 16 suggestions to workers. (LB)
c.1890s: INDONESIA: BUSINESS: "Kretek" cigarettes invented. The story is that Noto Semito of Kudus was desperate to cure his asthma. He rolled tobacco mixed with crushed cloves in dried corn leaves--and cured his respiratory ailments. He then Began manufacturing clove cigarettes under the name BAL TIGA (Three Balls). He became a millionaire, but competition was so fierce he eventurally died penniless in 1953.
1890: BUSINESS: Peak of chewing tobacco consumption in U. S., three pounds per capita. (ATS)
1890: BUSINESS: Key West, with a population of 18,786, is the largest city in Florida. Its biggest industry is cigar-making, which employs more than 2,000 workers.
1890: "Tobacco" appears in the US Pharmacopoeia, an official government listing of drugs.
1890: REGULATION: 26 states and territories have outlawed the sale of cigarettes to minors (age of a "minor" in a particulary state could be anything from 14-24.)
1890: REGULATION: PAKISTAN: The Railways Act prohibits smoking in railway compartments without the consent of fellow passengers. (Repealed in 1959 by then-provicial governemtn of West Pakistan)
1890: BUSINESS: Dukes establish the American Tobacco Company, which will soon monopolize the entire US tobacco industry. ATC will be dissolved in Anti-Trust action in 1911.
1890: LITERATURE: My Lady Nicotine, by Sir James Barrie, London
1892: REGULATION: Reformers petition Congress to prohibit the manufacture, importation and sale of cigarettes. The Senate Committee on Epidemic Diseases, while agreeing that cigarettes are a public health hazard, finds that only the states have the authority to act. The committee urges the petitioners to seek redress from state legislatures.
1892: BUSINESS: Book matches are invented, but are a technological failure. Since the striking surface was inside the book, all the matches caught fire often. By 1912, the technology would be perfected.
1893: SCIENCE: Pure nicotine is first synthesized by Pictet and Crepieux.
1893: REGULATION: The state of Washington bans the sale and use of cigarettes. The law is overturned on constitutional grounds as a restraint of free trade.
1894: BUSINESS: By now, Philip Morris passes from the troubled Morris family, to the control of William Curtis Thompson and his family (RK).
1894: BUSINESS: Brown & Williamson formed as a partnership in Winston-Salem, NC,, making mostly plug, snuff and pipe tobacco. (RK).
1894: LITERATURE: Under Two Flags by Ouida (Louise de la Ramee). Cigarette, the waif heroine "Rides like an Arab, Smokes like a Zouave." Cigarette is describes as "Enfant de L'armee, Femme de la Fume, Soldat de la France."
1894: AGRICULTURE: ZIMBABWE begins growing tobacco.
1895: ADVERTISING: First known motion picture commercial is made, an ad for Admiral cigarettes produced by Thomas A. Edison's company.
1896: REGULATION: Smoking banned in the House; chewing still allowed
1898: SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR: Congress raises taxes on cigarettes 200%
1898: LITIGATION: Tennessee Supreme Court upholds a total ban on cigarettes, ruling they are "not legitimate articles of commerce, because wholly noxious and deleterious to health. Their use is always harmful."
1899: Lucy Payne Gaston, who claims that young men who smoke develop a distinguishable "cigarette face," founds the Chicago Anti-Cigarette League, which grows by 1911 to the Anti-Cigarette League of America, and by 1919 to the Anti-Cigarette League of the World.
1899: HEALTH: First edition of the Merck Manual is published; it recommends smoking tobacco to treat bronchitis and asthma.
1899: TAXES: The Senate Finance Committee, in secret session, rolls back the wartime excise tax on cigarettes.(RK)
1899: BUSINESS: Benson & Hedges open a tony shop on 5th Avenue in New York City, providing elegant cigarettes for the carriage trade.
1899: BUSINESS: Liggett & Myers taken into Duke's Tobacco Trust. Duke has finally won the Bull Durham brand of chew. Bull Durham is the most famous trademark in the world, giving rise to the term “bull pen” (from a Bull Durham ad painted behind the Yankees’ dugout), and “shooting the bull” (most likely from chewing tobacco). The bull was advertised all over the world, and even painted on the Great Pyramid of Egypt.
1899: BUSINESS: KOREA: Korea Tobacco and Ginseng (KTG) is founded as a state monopoly on ginseng. The monopoly was expanded to include tobacco in 1921.
1899: BUSINESS: RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company incorporates..
1899: BUSINESS: Pall Mall brand is introduced by Butler & Butler Tobacco Co. in New York.
Chapter 1: Discovery
Chapter 2: The Sixteenth Century--Sailors Spread the Seeds
Chapter 3: The Seventeenth Century--"The Great Age of the Pipe"
Chapter 4: The Eighteenth Century--Snuff Holds Sway
Chapter 5: The Nineteenth Century--The Age of the Cigar
Chapter 6: The Twentieth Century, 1900-1950--The Rise of the Cigarette
Chapter 7: The Twentieth Century, 1950-1999--The Battle is Joined
Chapter 8: The New Millennium
This document's original URL is: http://www.tobacco.org/resources/history/Tobacco_History.html
©2001 Gene Borio, Tobacco BBS (212-982-4645). WebPage: http://www.tobacco.org).Original Tobacco BBS material may be reprinted in any non-commercial venue if accompanied by this credit
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